Máy tính có thương hiệu bị thay ổ cứng để giảm giá thành

Tổng giám đốc Microsoft Việt Nam Nguyễn Minh Trí tại cuộc họp

9/10 ổ cứng của Việt Nam bị nhiễm mã độc, cao nhất khu vực

Nghiên cứu chuyên sâu về an toàn máy tính của Microsoft được thực hiện tại năm nước Đông Nam Á bao gồm Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thái Lan và Việt Nam.

Qua 282 bộ đĩa cài và ổ cứng của các máy tính có thương hiệu bao gồm Acer, Asus, Dell, HP, Lenovo và Samsung, được lấy mẫu tại năm quốc gia, các nhà nghiên cứu của Microsoft đã phát hiện ra 69% các mẫu thử nói trên chứa các phần mềm độc hại, nguy cơ lây lan và phát tán các virus cao.

So với báo cáo sơ bộ được thực hiện trên 118 mẫu thử đã được công bố vào tháng 12-2012, nghiên cứu chuyên sâu với gấp đôi lượng mẫu thử này đã cho thấy tỷ lệ lây nhiễm phần mềm độc hại cao hơn 6%.

Phân tích các mẫu thử cũng chỉ ra 5.601 trường hợp nhiễm mã độc thuộc 1.131 loại phần mềm độc hại khác nhau - gấp nhiều lần so với 403 loại phát hiện được từ nghiên cứu sơ bộ.

Tỷ lệ lây nhiễm mã độc đã thay đổi đáng kể trong khu vực những năm gần đây: tại Philippines dù các mẫu kiểm tra có số lượng phần mềm độc hại thấp nhất với 42%, nhưng cứ hai trong năm máy tính và bộ đĩa cài được kiểm tra đều bị lây nhiễm. Tại Việt Nam, nghiên cứu trên 41 ổ cứng và 9 bộ đĩa cài đưa ra kết quả 66% đĩa cài lậu và 92% ổ cứng bị nhiễm mã độc.

Trong báo cáo, mã độc Zeus được đánh giá là phần mềm đặc biệt nguy hiểm. Ông Vũ Minh Trí, Tổng giám đốc Microsoft Việt Nam cho biết, loại virus Trojian chuyên đánh cắp mật khẩu Zeus sử dụng cách thức gọi là “keylogging” và các cơ chế khác để đột nhập, tiếp cận nhận dạng tài khoản cá nhân và các dữ liệu nhạy cảm khác của nạn nhân. Theo Báo cáo xu hướng tội phạm mạng 2012 của RSA, Zeus đã gây thiệt hại vào khoảng 1 tỷ USD trên toàn cầu trong 5 năm trở lại đây.

Một nửa máy tính ở Việt Nam bị thay ổ cứng

Cũng theo nghiên cứu, khi sử dụng phần mềm sao chép, quy định về tường lửa Windows đã bị thay đổi trên 97% các thiết bị, điều phần mềm diệt virus thông thường không phát hiện được.

Theo báo cáo, các máy tính thương hiệu hàng đầu như Acer, Asus, Dell, HP, Lenovo và Samsung cũng bị các phần mềm độc hại tấn công, chủ yếu vì ổ cứng bị tháo lắp để cài đặt hệ điều hành và ứng dụng. Trong 1/3 số mẫu thử máy tính thương hiệu, ổ cứng đã được tháo ra và thay bằng ổ cứng có chứa phần mềm giả mạo. Con số này lên đến 50% cho số mẫu thử tại Việt Nam.

Bà Rebecca Hồ, Giám đốc Sở hữu Trí tuệ, Microsoft khu vực Đông Nam Á cho biết, việc thay đổi ổ đĩa cứng có thương hiệu bằng ổ cứng chứa phần mềm giả mạo là nhằm giảm giá thành của máy tính. Nhiều máy tính đã bị nứt vỏ, có máy tính khi mở ra thì thấy ổ đĩa được chèn thêm giấy vào do ổ cứng được thay bé hơn ổ cứng được gắn kèm cùng máy tính.

Thông tin này khiến doanh nghiệp và người dùng khu vực Đông Nam Á bao gồm Việt Nam không khỏi giật mình trước nguy cơ bị mã độc tấn công ngay trên các thiết bị được cho là tuyệt đối an toàn của các thương hiệu lớn. Quan niệm “mua máy tính có thương hiệu đồng nghĩa với việc đảm bảo an toàn tuyệt đối cho máy tính” cần phải xem xét lại.

Theo ông Nghiêm Xuân Thắng, Giám Đốc điều hành Trần Anh, để giữ thông tin an toàn khỏi các hoạt động tội phạm, mọi người cần lựa chọn địa điểm mua máy tính thiết bị kỹ càng. Quan trọng hơn, họ nên kiểm tra xem các sản phẩm này đã được tích hợp sẵn phần mềm có bản quyền hay chưa.

Theo Microsoft, người dùng nên mua thiết bị từ các cửa hàng tin cậy, tránh những khuyến mãi khủng “tốt một cách đáng nghi ngờ”. Cần lưu ý kiểm tra sản phẩm được đóng gói nguyên tem và có chứng nhận hàng chính hãng.

Kể từ năm 2007, Microsoft đã nhận hơn 10.000 báo cáo về nạn sao chép lậu tại khu vực Đông Nam Á – từ những người đã mua máy tính có thương hiệu và phải trả chi phí nhiều hơn cho “sản phẩm thật” nhưng đang đối mặt với nhiều nguy cơ và trách nhiệm pháp lý vì phải dùng sản phẩm giả mạo.

Ông Vũ Ngọc Hoan, Cục phó Cục Bản quyền, Bộ Văn hóa – Thể thao và Du lịch, đánh giá cao kết quả công bố này của Microsoft và cho rằng đây là cú hích lớn cho người sử dụng có ý thức trong việc sử dụng phần mềm có bản quyền. Đồng thời, ông Hoan cùng thừa nhận, tỷ lệ vi phạm bản quyền phần mềm của Việt Nam còn cao hơn nhiều so với bình quân của thế giới, và đánh giá cao hoạt động tự bảo vệ quyền của các doanh nghiệp trong thời gian qua, bên cạnh hoạt động thanh, kiểm tra của cơ quan quản lý.

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